What is ALTRUISM?

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In other words….  --  random-acts-of-kindness

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The term altruism was coined by Auguste Comte (1798–1857), the French philosopher and sociologist (Dixon, T., 2005.New Dictionary of the History of Ideas)


Here are a couple of videos that covers the basic ideas of altruism.

Altruism comes in several flavours. The first one is:

Pure Altruism    which refers to the simple act of GIVING….of our time, money, effort….anything that we can, freely and willingly… without a coercion or obligation. Acts of donation, volunteering, fundraising, providing relief supplies, donating blood and organs freely (without any obligation), giving someone a warm smile or a hug are all forms of altruism.

But then one would question… Why? Why should we donate or give of ourselves? Why should we do any random acts of kindness?


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Simply giving a little of our time, money, effort makes us feel like better human beings. It gives us a warm glow of satisfaction, a smile to cherish, a memory to preserve. It feels like the right thing to do!

Here are links of some websites that explain and inspire altruism

The following video is a TED talk given by a Tibetan monk, Matthieu Ricard. He talks about how altruism can help change us and our society for the better

Reciprocal Altruism

This put simply, is expecting a favour in exchange of a favour, tit-for-tat, an act that is mutually beneficial.

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The word “reciprocate” meaning to return a favour or a compliment, forms the basis of this term. It comes from the Latin word “reciprocare” which means going to and fro.

The term “reciprocal altruism” was coined by Robert Trivers in the 1970s.

Animals, too show reciprocal altruism behavior and he theory related to them is kin selection. William D. Hamilton, an evolutionary biologist, came up with the theory in 1964 and coined it as Hamilton’s rule. In a nutshell, Hamilton’s rule is when animals put themselves at risk (barking, warning calls) to ensure the survival and safety of their siblings and relatives who share similar genes and will pass them to their offspring (Brembs, B. 2001).



Pathological  Altruism

Too much of anything is not good. That applies to altruism too!!!

Pathological altruism is when one reaches a point where it can be detrimental to one’s physical or emotional health. It goes beyond the point of being generous and kind. A good example would be going without necessities to help out a friend in need or jumping in the water to save someone when you can’t swim yourself.

This book is one of the first of its kind to explore the negative aspects of altruism and empathy.


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All the above-mentioned forms of altruism come with their own caveats. What then, would be the ideal form of altruism? How can we do the best form of “good” without harming ourselves or selfishly expecting any reward for it?

There is a form of altruism that is making waves and coming under the spotlight in the media and the attention of the world…..

 Effective Altruism

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This is based on a simple rule – Doing the best we can! It calls for a balance between the heart and the mind. The word “effective” says it all. Effective altruists believe in doing maximum good for the world. Investing in charities strategically rather than passionately. They believe in long term goals.

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It can be quite an unconventional outlook. One good example would be an effective altruist taking up a well- paid job and donating most of his income to charity work. This is only one of many approaches.

The following is a link to a website called Centre for Effective Altruism based in Oxford, UK.


REFERENCES: (in alphabetical order)

Brembs, B. (2001), Hamilton’s Theory. Academic Press. Doi: 10.1006/rwgn.2001.058

Dixon, T. (2005). New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. The Gale Group, Inc.




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Discrimination and Prejudice in Movies



Movie tonight anyone???

Yes please………I would like mine with a sprinkling of stereotype and prejudice…..oh, and a dash of discrimination thrown in please! Thank you.


 Stereotyping and Prejudice are topics none of us are alien to. But where do these behaviours come from???

Negative behaviour typesets usually are a product of our cultural beliefs, ideas passed on from parent to child, from our cultural association and wider community that we are part of. The reason behind these biases is ignorance– where we are not aware of or do not want to know anything beyond our scope of understanding. Illiteracy or half-baked knowledge and ‘I know best’ type of mentality too can hamper our understanding and affect our biases.

Another very significant influence that we all live under, one that has a subtle and sometimes shocking, but always a very profound impact on us is – the MEDIA. Movies, TV, news reports, newspapers, magazines are a very significant part of our lives…..encroaching on us, creeping into our minds, demanding our attention in every way possible. In this blog we will be focussing on the damaging effects of movies on the masses.

It is not a novel idea…Movies have been shaping our thoughts and views of stereotypes and prejudices for many decades now, and still keep influencing us to date.


There are all sorts of stereotypes that movies have created in our minds:

  • Racism- is top of the list.


Others include: (in no greater or lesser extent)

  • Gender inequality

Portrayal of socio-economic status like

  • wealthy people, poor people,
  • ethnic characters,
  • librarians,
  • villains,
  • heroes and heroines, to name but a few.


Representation of Race/ Ethnicity

According to a study done in 2013, in the University of Southern California, in the top grossing 500 films, there were over 75% of white actors and the other 25% were divided amongst Hispanic, Asian, Black and others. This study was bone in films from movies from 2007 -2012 (Dr. Smith, S.L, Choueiti, M & Dr. Pieper, K., 2013)

Here is the full article link.


Disney movies that kids and adults love to watch all over the world are quite guilty of stereotyping their animated and non-animated films. To see a sample of these movies, please click on the following link


Portrayal of Arabs in Movies: Blockbuster “True Lies” 1994, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger as a spy for a secret American government agency featuring a fictional terrorist group named “Crimson Jihad”.

Another example is Disney’s “Aladdin” 1992, featuring all Arabs as barbaric with grotesque facial features (huge noses and sinister eyes).

Also Arab women featured in “Aladdin” are all scantily clad, exotic belly dancers which is so far removed from the truth! In real life, most Arab women are so heavily covered from head to toe, you can barely see their eyes as they even wear gloves, socks and naqab (face cover).


Here are links to several websites which contain lists of stereotypic films…


Ironically, there is prejudice in the Hollywood film industry itself, which is pretty male- dominated. The storylines in films are more male- orientated. Men are lean-mean-fighting machines, clever, resourceful, brave, strong and sometimes even charming and courteous  to boot!…Women, on the other hand, are more often scantily clad, portrayed as sex objects, helpless damsels- in- distress, who constantly need rescuing from some sort of imminent danger.

The female actors are paid much less than their male counterparts, even when their roles are just as, if not more important. Here is an interesting article written on the above topic.!prettyPhoto

A British lecturer, Dr Charles Da Costa, wrote about stereotyping in animated films. According to him, producing animation films is a long, tedious and labour-intensive procedure. And, one of the easiest ways to represent multi-culturism  is to use “stereotypes”. The Guardian has printed an article on stereotypes and racial prejudice. Click below to read about it.


How should we overcome our feelings of prejudice and train ourselves to be unbiased??? Can we ensure that our future generation is not cultivating the prejudices of their ancestors and treating everyone alike??? Perhaps starting with ourselves and our attitudes. If we can break our mould and perhaps change our disposition a little…towards a differently- abled person, or a differently coloured person and become more accepting of our differences………

then perhaps we can create a better future for our children……….and leave a legacy of….tolerance and acceptance.


Perhaps it’s a matter for the film classification boards. They could put a warning on the certificate: “Contains mild fantasy violence, very mild language, a white-supremacist subtext, and grotesquely derogatory portrayals of ethnic minorities.” Or: “Probably won’t make your child into a racist, but sure as hell ain’t gonna help.” It’s not as if children have demanded any of this, but they are the ones soaking it all in. It goes without saying that racism is learned, and how diversity is portrayed on screen is a big part of that learning process. One day, our children could look back on these movies in the same way that we see Song of the South, and wonder why their parents did so little about an iniquity that was staring them in the face. (Rose, S., Online resource).





Dr. Smith, S.L, Choueiti, M & Dr. Pieper, K., 2013. Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism *Race/Ethnicity in 500 Popular Films: Is the Key to Diversifying Cinematic Content held in the Hand of the Black Director?

Rose, S., 2014. The Guardian. Repressed Brits, evil Mexicans, Arab villains: why are Hollywood’s animated movies full of racist stereotypes?



Stereotype, Prejudice and Discrimination

Hello and welcome to SamChrissy’s blog.

I am Sameena (the Sam end of this blog!). I am an Indian national, now living in Blackburn, UK for the past 13 years. And still not used to British weather! My first brush with stereotyping came via the media and biased conversations with friends, family and my immediate community.

I am Christine (Chrissy). I am English/ British, born and bred and still getting used to our weather! My first contact with a non-English person was at school in 1965/66 with a South African girl, who I had taken under my wing at my headmaster’s request. My other school friends would not accept her because of her colour.

Sam – The reason for my stereotypical behaviour was not having any exposure to the outside world; “living in my own cocoon” Also taking on beliefs of friends and family, especially close family members, who had never stepped out of the “said pond”, but definitely had strong opinions/ views about it. This then became my initial layer of stereotype.

All this was further enhanced by the media…which only served to fire our biases, which included but were not restricted to:

All white people are intoxicated/ tipsy

White people do not marry or their marriages do not last long enough

White people are rich!!!

What is a stereotype?

It is a simplified assumption about a group on prior assumptions.

Chrissy – Prejudices in my life came in during my school years. I took a South African girl under my wing, on the request of my headmaster. This caused problems with my “white” class peers. They would not accept her or talk to me because of her skin colour.

So, What is Prejudice?

Prejudice is an incorrect or unjustified attitude which is usually negative towards a sole individual based on their social group (Mc.Leod, S.A. 2008).

Common features of prejudice include negative feelings, stereotype beliefs and a tendency to discriminate against members of the group. While specific definitions of prejudice given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves prejudgement (usually negative) about members of a group.

Types of prejudice include but are not restricted to:






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When prejudice occurs, stereotyping and discrimination may also result. In many cases prejudices are based upon stereotypes.

According to psychologist, Gordon Allport, (1954), prejudice and stereotype emerge in part as a result of normal human thinking. In order to make sense of the world around is it is important to sort information into mental categories.


During the Super Bowl 2013 (see clip below), a coca cola advert, Arabs were portrayed quite stereotypically as riding on camels whilst other cultural groups had more modern means of transport.


“Why is it that Arabs are always shown as either oil-rich sheiks, terrorists or belly dancers?” This question was asked by Warren David, president of the American- Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee during a Reuters interview about this commercial.

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Sam – Most of these prejudices come down to our ignorance and mine shattered like glass when I moved to the UK after my marriage. My steadfastly held notions were broken down when I experienced first-hand that all my precious prejudices were so wrong!

The literal meaning for prejudice is prejudgement. (Huffman, 2002)

Prejudice and discrimination are often overlap each other in conversations and people’s understanding, but in reality they are two different from each other. Prejudice is an attitude, and discrimination is a behaviour, making it the worse of the two (Fiske, 1998), in (Huffman 2002)

Stereotyping can often lead to prejudice. And prejudice combined with our irrational fear can very often lead to discrimination, as the following video shows.

Ways to reduce prejudice:

In addition to looking at the reason why prejudice occurs researchers have explored different ways prejudice can be reduced, even eliminated.

  • Train to be more empathic to other groups
  • Passing laws and regulations that require fair and equal treatment for all groups of people.
  • To gain public support and awareness for anti- prejudice social norms
  • Making people aware of the inconsistencies in their own beliefs
  • Increased contact with members of other social groups.

Underneath our skin colour, we are all the same!

We hate being the centre of anyone’s prejudice. Why then, can we not afford them the same respect and understanding?

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Allport, G. W.(1954). The nature of prejudice. Redding, MA: Addison- Wesley.

McLeod, S.A. (2008). Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from Visited 03/12/2015.

Huffman,K.(2002). Psychology in Action (6th Edition). America: Hermitage Publishing Services.